French opera Part 2
The most significant phenomenon of this period was the Opera genre, “horror and rescue”. Social motive in these operas was not significant: was dominated by purely love theme mixed with naive morality. An entertaining story filled with all kinds of works. Whatever woes may hit the hero or the heroine they often came from the lower classes they are always “behind the curtain” waiting for the happy ending. The innocent victim and the good triumphed, the villain and Vice punished.
In the operas “horror and salvation” the spirit of romance, there were many spectacular moments. The dramaturgy was based composers on the contrast between a variety of stage situations. Stood out and were emphasized by the means of music the main character. Possible to accurately passed down the setting action.
Amplified the romantic spirit, greatly enriched the score by increasing the use of genres of domestic music song couplet, ballad, March, melodically close and accessible to a wide audience. The style of the Opera “horror and rescue” has had a positive impact of PA further development of not only French, but also in the world of Opera. “The horrors of the monastery” Burton (1790), “William tell” Gretry (1791) and “Lodoiska” Cherubini (1791) the first work of this genre. From the ensuing select operas “The Cave” by J. F. Lesuer (1793) and “Water Carrier” (or “Two days”), Cherubini (1800).
The years of the Consulate and Empire of Napoleon Bonaparte (1799-1814) left a significant mark on the French musical culture. In “Imperial Academy of music” (now called “Theatre of the national Opera”) are placed in Opera, the content of which is based primarily on legends, myths or ancient historical events. On the stage of the reigns a raised tone, a single view of its pomp and splendor outshines the other. Other works are written with the explicit purpose to glorify the all-powerful Napoleon.
For the “Imperial Academy of music” working composers of the older generation and the young, but even embarking on an independent career. Best operas of this period “Semiramida” W. S. Catel, “Bards” by J. F. Lesuer and, in particular, “Vestal” Italian G. L. Spontini, vivid theatricality and spectacle which anticipates the Opera works of D. Meyerbeer.
Performances of the comic Opera are two theatres, the Favart and farce. Here successfully doing Economics. Mahul, and N. Dalayrac, N. Ivoire, and F. A. Boieldieu. A curious phenomenon is to be considered “Joseph in Egypt” Magula (1807), where there was no love affair, no female characters.
With strict style of music that spawned the biblical legend, the Opera features many lyrically soulful “big” Opera, and a two act, “chamber” Opera “Beatrice and Benedict” by Berlioz; most poetical “Tales of Hoffmann” by Offenbach, which was the only Opera opus of the great legislator of the French operetta, and a genius sample stage realism “Carmen” Visa. If too told to add that to lyric Opera has been characterized by frequent handling of its authors to the classics of world literature (Goethe, Shakespeare), Oriental themes (“The pearl fishers”, “Jamila”, “Lakme”), to biblical stories (“Samson and Delilah”), in General, the described phenomenon will present a picture of the colorful, contradictory.
Note, however, the following pattern. French lyric Opera departs, as a rule, from great historical and heroic subjects, limited largely to the intimate sphere of human life. To replace exaggerated constructions of the “big” Opera, developed the choral scenes and ensembles come romance, Cavatina, ballad, Aria, that is purely chamber stage forms. When the libretto become the greatest creation of the world literature for example, “Hamlet” and “Romeo and Juliet” by Shakespeare, “Faust”, “Werther” and “Wilhelm Meister” by Goethe, the Opera loses a deep philosophical idea, highlighting a love drama.
But these “cons” the new musical theatrical genre of French art bathed many it “pros”. Focusing attention on mental world of man, the authors of lyrical operas created works marked by the genuine sincerity and warmth of feelings. Many of them, in particular have an Array of portrait characteristics of characters received subtle psychological completeness.
The scores and Visa Gounod, Offenbach and Delibes, and Massenet Volume there are cases of use of samples of urban domestic folklore, what did the works of these composers familiar and intelligible to a mass audience.
Separately should be said about “Carmen” Visa. Rare truthfulness in conveying the complex human emotions and relationships, the strength of the emotional impact on the audience, amazing beauty and at the same time striking clarity score, reflects and rough fun, and tragic doom, the Opera put Visa in a number of unique works all over the world music literature.
French Opera impossible to imagine without the “Pelleas and Melisande” by Claude Debussy (1862-1918) and “The Spanish hour” by Maurice Ravel (1875-1937).
Debussy the founder of impressionism in music. His only Opera, created at the beginning of the XX century by the drama of the symbolist Mikhail Metallica, fully reflects the aesthetics of this peculiar direction. In Opera a lot of great finds in the area of harmonic and orchestral colors, and in the field recitative declamatory writing. It, however, is gloomy pessimism.
“The Spanish hour” Ravel lyric comic Opera. The focus of her article is focused PA band. With it, drawn to the amazing wit and fidelity the musical life of the watchmaker, where the action of the Opera. As in ballets by Ravel, these kind of “Choreographic Simfonia”, “Spanish hour” are all based on entertaining intrigue and fascinating with its colors of the orchestral palette. A critical component of a music Opera drama vocal forms deliberately diverted the composer into the background, giving place to radical inclusiveness manner of vocal writing.
After Debussy and Ravel, French music theatre has a relatively small number of new works have left an appreciable trace in art of our days. The Parisian “Grand Opera” turned to contemporary music in a long series of ballets, the plot and divertimenti, continuing the famous French ballet tradition. In Opera there is no such abundance repertoire works, although the modern French Opera was created by the efforts of such important composers as A. Honegger, F. Poulenc, D. Milhaud, A. Sore.
The first of the modern French composers working in the Opera genre, should be named Darius Milhaud (1892-1974). The picture of his operatic oeuvre is rich and variegated. He wrote 15 operas and five major stage of works in other genres. One of the first theatrical experiences Millau was the music for “Orestea” Aeschylus, translated by P. Claudel. But this Opera was only the first part of the trilogy “Eumenidi”. “Agamemnon” and “Choephori” are in the nature of a kind of oratory with rhythmical party of the speaker of the choir in combination with variously differentiated percussion instruments (this technique is later elaborately developed Orph).