The history of Chinese theater Part 3
For performances czuczai we used two types of buildings: the booths, the scene of which was in the center of the building and resembled a circus arena, and of the stage, raised above the ground. The audience was located adjacent to the stage area. Scenes were often decorated with embroidered posters, they reported the name of the company, the names of the main actors. The performances were paid, there was also a custom to bestow the actors during the performance. The troupe consisted usually family members, rarely 1-2 actor. The second one performed the male role. But there was a long period of time and practice performance of female roles by men.
Another major form of yuan drama theatre was, coinci, which was largely the tradition of “southern drama”. Performances generally were very large, went on for several days in a row.
Formed two theatrical traditions the “Northern” (czuczai) and South (nanyue) drama. The first was the Beijing second Hangzhou. You can talk about the formation of two completely Mature forms of theatrical art. They are characterized by the presence of dramatic lines, as well as the connection in the action of music and dance numbers from the stage. However, these two forms were significant differences.
“Northern drama” experienced foreign influence, particularly from India and Persia. She had a clear structure the prologue and four acts, and the vocals were sung exclusively by the protagonists. In the “southern drama” was not a rigid structure, and the vocals could do all the characters. Also allows improvisation and a direct appeal to the audience. However, she quickly fell into disrepair again only at the turn of the Yuan and Minsk eras. In the XVI “southern drama” takes on the name “coinci” (the story of the unusual). The heyday of this genre was not until the beginning of the XVIII century. “Northern drama” took some elements of “southern”, and as a result, the notion of “Yuan classic drama”.
Can provide about 12 different types of subjects: religious, domestic, detective, etc., Preserved the names of 158 playwrights. Of the more than 700 pieces created by them, we got 170 as a whole and about 40 fragments. One of the founders of the genre is Guan Han-Qing. He belongs to most famous work is “the Offense of Doue”.
Jansky and kunshan theatre
Further development of the Chinese theater belongs to the centuries. During this period, there are two major trends of the Chinese theatre inscoe and Kunshan.
Jansky theatre was born in Jiangxi province. He appeals to national themes, folk melodies. First performance at this theatre consisted of short plays on subjects from the life of craftsmen and artisans. In the future, the actors in theaters began to put pieces on the subjects of popular novels romance of the three kingdoms Luo Guan-Zhong, “the water margin” Shi Nai Yan, “journey to the West” Cheng-En and the Chronicles “Generals of Yang family”, “Biography of Yue FEI” and so on.
Performances of the cycles were for several days in a row, and each of them was cut off at the critical situation to ensure the presence of the audience and the cash collection on the next day. A picture of big historical events resulted in the performance of the mass battle scenes.
Other major theatrical direction of this period Kunshan theatre originated in Kunshan (Jiangxi province). It was a popular place for recreation and entertainment of the Chinese aristocracy. Here in search of work gathered actors, musicians, playwrights, poets. Gradually on the basis of local perceptions formed the theatre. This theatre was a court. Plays were usually played in the living room or in the Palace hall (Kunshan why the theatre was called “theatre on the carpet”). The art of the theater had a great influence of aristocratic literature and visual arts of centuries. This was manifested in the high technique of acting and vocal skills of the actors.
Unlike of the theater, the music of which was based on a variety of rhythmic figures, to Kunshan theatre is characterized by a large melodic variety. Music to performances created by composers.
After experiencing great fame, having influenced a number of local theatres, Kunshan theatre by the end of XVIII middle of XIX century, gradually lost its popularity and almost completely disappears. In centuries theatrical centers have become large cities of China, including Yangzhou city, through which the road of the Emperor, travelling around the country, and later is Beiping (Beijing). Here gathered a troupe of local theater. The greatest success of the troupe, dubbed huabu (popular). Gradually formed in the Chinese capital Beijing theatre, known as the capital theatre (jingxi), was a well-known and Anhui troupe “Santin”, “Sisi”, “County” and others.
Beijing (capital), the theater belonged to the initiative to create a new type of play, constructed on the basis of the most striking passages from different plays.
Greater fame was acquired pieces of the genre, USI, full of battle scenes, built for acrobatics and the manipulation of fake weapons. In the art of theater jingxi found expression the basic features of traditional Chinese theatre.
mous performer of this form of theatre Lee Hsien-Hao. Begin to appear of a play with a plot and a set of roles, and “Great arias” dazui. Dazui consisted of three parts: musical, stage and dance. The stage of could include up to 50 scenes-episodes.
Further development of song and dance forms of representations occurs during the tan era. Popular theatrical dance performances on historical themes “Dance with swords” performed in the modern theatre secui. In view are included and pieces-dialogues of the comic character. Here first appear sustainable role resourceful wit, can-Jun and Canggu. Tang presentation wore euro visionary character. The actors used bright masks, special costumes, and props. At the court of Emperor Xuanzong established the first special schools “Pear garden”, “mint of spring”, where children of disgraced dignitaries and officials prepared musicians, singers and dancers for private court performances.
Theatre of song
In the era of the song dynasty (960-1279) continued specialization of theatrical genres and their further formation. Appeared a troupe of puppet theater, which has a permanent place in cities and their permanent repertoire. Were troupe, freely moving from place to place, which also attracted much attention of the population and were loved, and traditional shadow theatre and other spectacles.