General Info

What was the caliphate system?

What was the caliphate system?

Caliphate (“Khilafat” in Arabic) was a semi-religious political system of governance in Islam, in which the territories of the Islamic empire in the Middle East and North Africa and the people within were ruled by a supreme leader called Caliph (“Khalifa” in Arabic – meaning successor).

What caused the development of the Islamic caliphates?

Islam spread through military conquest, trade, pilgrimage, and missionaries. Arab Muslim forces conquered vast territories and built imperial structures over time. The caliphate—a new Islamic political structure—evolved and became more sophisticated during the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates.

How did Islamic caliphates use religion to govern?

The Islamic Caliphates’ legal system was based off of the Quran and Hadith, named Sharia Law. They did this, because they would have more power over the people; not only did they regulate their laws and duties, but also their religion. They would gain favor from the public for embracing religion.

What are the four major Islamic caliphates?


  • 2.1 Rashidun Caliphate (632–661)
  • 2.2 Umayyad Caliphate (661–750)
  • 2.3 Abbasid Caliphate (750–1517)
  • 2.4 Fatimid Caliphate (909–1171)
  • 2.5 Parallel regional caliphates in the later Abbasid Era.
  • 2.6 Indian subcontinent.
  • 2.7 Ottoman Caliphate (1517–1924)
  • 2.8 Parallel regional caliphates to the Ottomans.

Who are the four caliphs of Islam?

The first four caliphs of the Islamic empire – Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali are referred to as Rashidun (rightly guided) Caliphs (632-661 CE) by mainstream Sunni Muslims.

What was one effect of the expansion of Islam?

What was one effect of the expansion of Islam between 632 and 750? Armed conquest was forbidden by the caliphs. Cultural and commercial connections were established over a sizable region. A majority of the western European population converted.

What are the two branches of Islam?

A disagreement over succession after Mohammed’s death in 632 split Muslims into Islam’s two main sects, Sunni and Shia.

How did the Abbasids change the caliphate and Islamic community?

The Abbasids overthrew the Umayyad dynasty in 750 CE, supporting the mawali, or non-Arab Muslims, by moving the capital to Baghdad in 762 CE. The Persian bureaucracy slowly replaced the old Arab aristocracy as the Abbasids established the new positions of vizier and emir to delegate their central authority.

Who was the 1st Caliph?

Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr, the first caliph, ruled for two years. He was able to keep the Islamic world together but not all was well.

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